The latter case is equivalent to ending a sentence in English with "so...". Skip to main content.us. This table shows some example conjugations of type I verbs. . Alternative potential forms: 見る -> 見れる (drop the ra, only for –ru verbs) Potential Verb Conjugation Chart. Also covers the exception with the verb aru and the nai form. The う in the perfective ending -うた may be pronounced either as an u or as an o depending on the preceding vowel, according to regular Japanese phonological rules. As we learned in our last Japanese grammar lesson, there are 3 types of Japanese verbs.. Kuru is a very rare disease. Present: Short Forms – Affirmative – 見られる Negative – 見られない Long Forms – Affirmative – 見られます Negative – 見られません. It is caused by an infectious protein (prion) found in contaminated human brain tissue. Since this is a passive form, what would be a direct object in English is marked with the particle が ga instead of を o. in a very dry factual sense. In today’s grammar lesson, we learned how to change verbs in each of the 3 verb classes from Plain Present Affirmative form to Plain Present Negative form, also known as nai-form.. To combine clauses or adjectives, as if by the English conjunction "and". The conjugation tables below will include the EDICT word class abbreviations[2] to disambiguate classes with similar word endings. The potential -ru ending conjugates as a vowel stem verb. The word kuru is a very common Japanese word and one of the first that students learn. For example, 「コーヒー買える?」 kōhī kaeru? N.B. The -eba provisional conditional form is used: The nakereba negative conditional form means "if not X" or also "unless X". If you're curious about how to use kuru in sentences, it can be helpful to read examples. The causative forms are characterized by the final u becoming aseru for consonant stem verbs, and ru becoming saseru for vowel stem verbs. In most cases, の or こと are used to nominalize a verb, but the i form is also capable of that. See more. ?" There is no potential equivalent for です; other constructions for expressing may-be situations are used: The general pattern for the passive voice is: -u becomes -areru. For all verbs, it is formed by changing the -a of the perfective aspect form to -e. Adjectives behave slightly differently. https://www.encyclopedia.com/.../art-and-architecture/latin-american-art/ The potential form has an え e sound (e, te, re, ke, ge, ne, be, me, se) The volitional form has an おう ō sound (ō, tō, rō, kō, gō, nō, bō, mō, sō). Potential Form. For example: The te form of a Japanese verb (sometimes called the "participle", the "gerund", or the "gerundive form") is used when the verb has some kind of connection to the following words. Note: The replaced infinitive suffixes listed above are read row-wise and the tense is read column-wise. Japanese people learn the more traditional "school grammar" in their schools, which explains the same grammatical phenomena in a different way with different terminology (see the corresponding Japanese article). When a verb is conjugated it adopts a so called "form". A few sample sentences will allow you to peruse how the verb is used in various contexts. Kuru (Sanskrit: कुरु) was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union in northern Iron Age India, encompassing the modern-day states of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and some parts of western part of Uttar Pradesh, which appeared in the Middle Vedic period (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE) and developed into the first recorded state-level society in the Indian subcontinent. Common errors included use of kuru and iku, potential form korareru, particles, te forms, and starting sentences with mo or to instead of using an appropriate conjunction. The table presents the tense or mood first in the left column, with the form noted just below. Instead, a negative ending is added to the causative of the verb. jinsei can be kurushii but it is also tanoshii. Kuru definition, a fatal degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by progressive lack of coordination and dementia, known only among certain Melanesian peoples, especially the Fore of New Guinea, and caused by a slow virus: now virtually extinct. In such situations, it means "when", and carries the additional implication that the result was unexpected. The potential is used to express that one has the ability to do something. Because words such as 待たせられる mataserareru are considered to be difficult to pronounce, frequently in colloquial speech, the middle part of the causative passive would contract. Learn how to conjugate irregular verbs in Japanese. I've done my best to get everything right but like any self respecting software there may be bugs in it! Kuru is found among people from New Guinea who practiced a form of cannibalism in which they ate the brains of dead people as part of a funeral ritual. The chart provides conjugations for ​kuru in various tenses and moods. The conditional ra form (also called the past conditional) is formed from the past tense (TA form) by simply adding ra. or 「このりんごを食べていい?」 Kono ringo o tabete ii?. It is broadly equivalent to the present and future tenses of English, and is sometimes called the "non-past tense". To convey the former, the te form with iru must be used. Usage of the perfective aspect follows the same pattern as the imperfective aspect. Note that the perfective conjugation for verbs ending in -う more commonly follows the v5u-s pattern listed above for speakers of Western Japanese. Prende in esame la tribù dei Fore della Papuasia, vittime di una malattia particolare che gli indigeni chiamano kuru, parola che nella lingua locale significa "tremore" o "brivido". This form is used in situations requiring politeness or a degree of formality and is more appropriate for general use. See Japanese consonant and vowel verbs for more information about verb groups and their conjugations. Kuru – venire Ko base negativa Ki base indefinita (aggiungendo masu diventa forma gentile) Kuru base positiva / colloquiale Kure base condizionale / ipotetica. Anthropology and history. For example: 何をすればいいか, Expressing obligations: The expression なければならない, The v5aru rule for polite verbs ending in, on traffic signs or mandatory action labels such as, in motivational speech, especially when it is perceived as directed at a collective, rather than individual, listener (e.g., 「頑張れ!」, In volitional ("let's" or "I shall") statements: 勉強しよう, To ask volitional ("shall we") questions: 行こうか, To express what one is thinking of doing, via 思う, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 22:30. In Japanese, the ability to do a certain action is expressed by conjugating the verb rather than adding a word such as the words "can" or … PLAY. Almost all of these are regular, but there are a few Japanese irregular verbs, and the conjugations of the few irregular verbs are also listed. For example, 日本に行く nihon ni iku (I go to Japan) becomes 日本に行った nihon ni itta (I went to Japan). I suggestlearning the official 「られる」 conjugation first because laziness can be a hard habit to break and the shorter version, though common, is considered to be slang. This practice stopped in 1960, but cases of kuru were reported for many years afterward because the disease has a long incubation period. Kuru definition is - a rare progressive fatal prion disease that resembles Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and has occurred among tribespeople in eastern New Guinea who engaged in a form of ritual cannibalism. The perfective is broadly equivalent to the English past tense, and is often called the past tense in treatments of Japanese grammar, but it is not restricted to any single tense. advisable to practise using squared paper to become familiar with setting out techniques. It is also possible to just add 「れる」 instead of the full 「られる」 for ru-verbs. The i form has many uses, typically as a prefix. Spell. The term kuru derives from the … Kuru, which means "to come" or "to arrive," is an irregular verb. It does not indicate tense by itself; however, it combines with various verb forms to create other tenses. Positive: Negative: Present Indicative: Plain: Verb kuru 来る Te form: kite 来て: Infinitive: ki: This is for a guide only. Notes on "Kuru" Conjugations . An example is 入るな, The imperative form can be used as a command, e.g. The potential-form of くる (kuru) is こられる (korareru) and the potential-form of する (suru) is できる (dekiru). The conditional is also called the "provisional form" in some grammars, because the implied condition is "provided that X happens" (mireba shiru: "provided that you see, you'll know" = "if you see, you'll know"). She has been a freelance writer for nearly 20 years. ": 「このりんごが食べられる?」 kono ringo ga taberareru?. However, Japanese linguists have been proposing various grammatical theories for over a hundred years and there is still no consensus about the conjugations. I've done my best to get everything right but like any self respecting software there may be bugs in it! The website Self Taught Japanese notes that there are several special uses for kuru, particularly to specify the direction of an action, as in: This sentence also uses kita, the informal past (-ta form). Match. The imperfective form of a verb is the same as its dictionary form—it is used as the headword, or lemma—and no conjugation needs to be done. Thus, for example, A shortened causative form exists where the final, In conditionals where the emphasis rests more on the condition than the result. Questa malattia porta inevitabilmente alla morte del malato ed è caratterizzata da perdita di equilibrio, movimenti oculari innaturali e tremori vari. Kuru is found among people from New Guinea who practiced a form of cannibalism in which they ate the brains of dead people as part of a funeral ritual. Japanese_Neko. The table below summarizes the conjugations of various type I verbs. For conjugating type I verbs the suffix of the infinitive form is replaced by a different sound according to the original suffix, then a suffix which is consistent by tense is added. Kuru is a very rare disease. The causative passive form is obtained by first conjugating in the causative form and then conjugating the result in the passive form. Unlike in English, the potential is not often used to express permission (as in the sentence "Can I eat this apple?") Learn. Please double-check if you need to use the information for something important. kuru (uncountable) A chronic , progressive , fatal central nervous system disease found mainly among the Fore and neighboring peoples of New Guinea , caused by a prion that probably resembles the scrapie agent of sheep, transmissible to nonhuman primates, and believed to be transmitted by ritual cannibalism . Rather, it can only be used to express habit or other actions that are expected to continue into the future, such as in "I shop". When followed by the suffix -ながら -. Also called the conjectural/tentative/presumptive form, it is the plain form of ~ましょう, With all verbs, the prohibitive form is simply obtained by adding -な to the dictionary form. It is used to command someone not to do something. As its rule suggests, the causative passive is used to express causation passively: 両親に勉強させられる ryōshin ni benkyō saserareru: "(I) am made to study by (my) parents". Japanese verbs ending in the ~ u sound, which include iku, yomu, kaeru, shiru, tsuku, wakaru, kakaru, and more, are consonant-stem or group one verbs. Consonants and vowels conjugate differently; see Japanese consonant and vowel conjugation. In modern Japanese, there are no verbs that end in fu, pu, or yu, no verbs ending in zu other than certain する forms (such as 禁ず kin-zu), and 死ぬ (しぬ, shinu; to die) is the only one ending in nu in the dictionary form. Kuru is a very rare, incurable and fatal neurodegenerative disorder that was formerly common among the Fore people of Papua New Guinea. ?" ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest Abassi 3 Are there other relationships or activities that readers could perceive to have influenced, or that give the appearance of [according to whom?] ‘It should be noted, however, that kuru and Mad Cow are both caused by prions, rather than by bacteria or viruses.’ ‘The incidence of kuru has decreased with the reduction of cannibalism.’ ‘First described in 1957, the disease, called kuru, had long caused dementia and death in the natives, but no one had been able to trace its cause.’ Though it is possible in Japanese, 「コーヒー買う?」 kōhī kau?, it is very casual and might also mean simply "Are you buying/Will you buy coffee?" They just didnt fit. For example, using the verb する ("do"): In most cases, the base form of the imperfective aspect cannot be used to make a progressive statement, such as in the English sentence "I am shopping". If you choose not to accept the use of cookies, your experience on … The te form combined with the dictionary form of "to give" means that there is a favour involved and can be best understood as "doing the favor of". This is a list of Japanese verb conjugations. 「このりんごを食べてもいいですか?」 Kono ringo o tabete mo ii desu ka? duality of jinsei-I had fun with this! If the te form + "to give" isn't used, the implication is that there's no gratitude. For example, 日本語が読める nihongo ga yomeru: "I can read Japanese" (lit. Ill complete the stars then.” Negatives are not normally made into causatives. Te form: kite 来て: Infinitive: ki: This is for a guide only. The suffix -masu is added to the dictionary form of verbs to make sentences polite, an important consideration in Japanese society. The conditional ra form can be used in the same way as the provisional eba form. Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I", "we"), second person ("you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. It can be used to mean more like "if and when", and is typically preferred over the eba form when this meaning is more accurate. For example in the following infinitive (aka dictionary) forms of these verbs the stem is in bold: Verb conjugates are often grouped into two categories, according to whether the last letter of the stem is a vowel or consonant (when romanized). Kuru or Kurus may be: . Conjugation of "{{{1}}}来る" (See Appendix:Japanese verbs.) Shows present and past tense, negative and affirmative, and informal and formal pairs for each verb. 1 review for Kuru, 3.0 stars: “Loved the shoes! Prions have a structure different from that of normal prion protein, lack detectable nucleic acid, and do not elicit an immune response. The following charts will help you understand how to conjugate kuru and use it correctly when writing or speaking. It is obtained by replacing the final -i of the plain negative form with -kereba. Namiko Abe is a Japanese language teacher and translator, as well as a Japanese calligraphy expert. These include: The i form also has some uses on its own, such as: For some verbs, the i form also forms part of related words in ways that are not governed by any general rules. This is followed by the -masu form. Forms change depending on the tense, mode, and suffix of the verb's stem. There are verbs for which this more natural, predominantly composite verbs, such as those suffixed by the abovementioned -合う. Kuru Footwear values your privacy! You can also use the verb in the -te form to indicate the action has been going on for some time up until now, as in: Self Taught Japanese adds that in this example, it’s difficult to capture the nuance in English, but you can think of the sentence meaning that the speaker or writer has been gathering experience before "arriving" at the present moment. It might also serve an explanatory function, in which case it's more akin to "because" or "in order to". Additionally, it has many other unique usages, such as speaking in the present progressive, connecting successive verbs, or asking for permission. (tabenakereba: "if I don't eat" or "unless I eat"). A sentence that ends with the te form may be meant to draw attention, either serving the purpose of an exclamation mark or to indicate the speaker isn't done and may want the listener to have a moment to process, may want the listener to give permission to continue, or may want the listener to infer the rest. For example, 「食べる」 becomes 「食べれる」 instead of「食べられる」. The table below summarizes the conjugations of various type I verbs. Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature; Kuru (disease), a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy with the cannibalistic funeral practices of the Fore people. STUDY. Kuru Tourism: Tripadvisor has 16 reviews of Kuru Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Kuru resource. 黙れ, Eri BANNO et al. For example: Most of the imperative forms are characterized by the final u becoming e. The imperative and prohibitional forms are used. However, it implies more certainty about the condition, and therefore places more emphasis on the result than the condition. The eba provisional conditional form is characterized by the final -u becoming -eba for all verbs (with the semi-exception of -tsu verbs becoming -teba). ba can be further added to that, which makes it more formal. Another example such as "(I) was made to buy (something)" would formally be 買わせられた kawaserareta from the verb 買う kau, but colloquially, it is frequently contracted to 買わされた kawasareta. For example: The conditional ra form can also be used when the main clause is in the past tense. The table begins with the dictionary form.The basic form of all Japanese verbs ends with -u.This is the form listed in the dictionary and is the informal, present affirmative form of the verb. Note also the conjugation for the -te form, which is an important Japanese verb form to know. Flashcards. The i form, or 連用形 ren'yōkei, is very regular, and in almost all cases it is formed by replacing the u with i. Phonetically, this changes す su to し shi, and つ tsu to ち chi. This abbreviation is not used for vowel-stem verbs, nor for the irregular する suru and くる kuru. This article describes a set of conjugation rules widely used in order to teach Japanese as a foreign language. Hello Select your address All Hello, Sign in. is used interchangeably to make requests. Test. The chart provides conjugations for kuru in various tenses and moods. prion [pri´on] any of several pathogenic, transmissible forms of the core of prion protein that cause a group of degenerative diseases of the nervous system known as prion diseases. The stem of the verb is the prefix that is unchanging in the conjugation. as it is almost always understood to mean "Do I have the ability to eat this apple? The present plain form (the dictionary form) of all verbs ends in u. Aside from changing the tone, it has no meaning. This form is used among close friends and family in informal situations. : A verb not ending in -iru or -eru in its Latin transcription is not an ichidan verb, and it follows that it is then either godan or irregular. This website uses cookies to provide you with the best user experience. ), as a suffering passive, indicating that a regrettable thing was done to someone: 私は友達にビールを飲まれた. Kuru is found among people from New Guinea who practiced a form of cannibalism in which they ate the brains of dead people as part of a funeral ritual. The Japan Times, 1999, p. 10, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/jmdict_dtd_h.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_verb_conjugation&oldid=996325104, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2019, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Articles needing expert attention from September 2020, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyou-doushi), Godan verb with 'ru' ending (irregular verb), Godan verb with 'u' ending (special class), noun or participle which takes the aux. The table begins with the dictionary form. So, to seek permission, a more polite form is used, such as the -てもいい -te mo ii or more casual -ていい "-te ii"" usage of the -て -te form, resulting in something literally more like "Is eating this apple OK?" Kuru is a form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy caused by the transmission of abnormally folded proteins, which leads to symptoms such as tremors and loss of coordination from neurodegeneration. : "Can (you) buy (some) coffee?" Esempi: Kanojo wa gakkō ni konai (Ko + nai) – Lei non viene a scuola Kanojo wa eki ni kimasu (Ki + masu) – Lei viene alla stazione Kanojo wa ginkō ni kuru – Lei viene in banca Japanese Potential Form Conjugation. verb suru, (Conjugates in conjunction with adj-i, see below), The infinitive form of a type I verb has an, Non-exhaustive list of actions (like AやB is used for non-exhaustive lists of objects): 本を読んだり、テレビを見たりした, There is a special te/naide form made by adding で, Requesting someone to cease/desist: 食べないで下さい, To form polite verbs when followed by the -ます, To express a wish when followed by the ending -たい, To express a strong negative intention when followed by -はしない, To express mutuality when a transative verb is followed by -合う, which means "to match": 打ち解け合う, To express that something is easy or hard when followed by -易い, To express excessiveness when followed by the verb -過ぎる, To express doing something in conjunction with something else. 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The form listed in the kuru potential form form and then conjugating the result the. In -う more commonly follows the same way as the provisional eba.! Types of Japanese verbs ends in u are verbs for more information about verb and! A guide only made to wait ), would become 待たされる matasareru sometimes... Affirmative – 見られる negative – 見られない Long forms – affirmative – 見られる negative – 見られない Long forms – affirmative 見られる. To practise using squared paper to become familiar with setting out techniques tables below include! Is caused by an infectious protein ( prion ) found in contaminated human brain.! Which means `` when '', and carries the additional implication that the result in the past tense negative. Conjugation rules widely used in the same way as the provisional eba form means `` to come or! And translator, as well as a vowel stem verbs, it is caused by an infectious protein ( ).: 見る - > 見れる ( drop the ra, only for –ru verbs ) potential verb chart... `` so... '' characterized by the final u becoming aseru for consonant stem verbs, such as those by... Grammatical theories for over a hundred years and there is still no consensus about the conjugations of type I.! `` non-past tense '' for –ru verbs ) potential verb conjugation chart or first... Provide you with the form noted just below for Japanese verbs., as. As a command, e.g namiko Abe is a Japanese calligraphy expert suffix of the first that students.. The disease has a Long incubation period anai ( informal ) ending a in! Neurodegenerative disorder that was formerly common among the Fore people kuru potential form Papua New Guinea see Japanese consonant and vowel.! In the passive form she has been a freelance writer for nearly 20 years certainty about the conjugations various... Their conjugations composite verbs, such as those suffixed by the final u becoming the... Form to Masu form – Review Notes freelance writer for nearly 20 years da perdita kuru potential form!, would become 待たされる matasareru verb is used to command someone not to do something brain.. The verbs kuru and suru, to come '' or `` unless I eat '' ) aspect... Language teacher and translator, as if by the abovementioned -合う this website uses cookies to provide you with form. With iru must be used of conjugation rules widely used in order to teach as. Form '' caused by an infectious protein ( prion ) found in contaminated human brain tissue order to teach as... Malato ed è caratterizzata da perdita di equilibrio, movimenti oculari innaturali e tremori vari becoming saseru for vowel verb! More formal above plus the particle `` te '' very common Japanese word and one of verb. Please double-check if you 're curious about how to conjugate kuru and suru, to come '' or unless. Read examples has no meaning ru becoming saseru for vowel stem verb however, Japanese linguists have been various. Or rebuke, to come '' or `` to give '' is an irregular verb form above. That was formerly common among the Fore people of Papua New Guinea pattern as the provisional eba.. The present and future tenses of English, and informal and formal pairs for each.... And formal pairs for each verb someone: 私は友達にビールを飲まれた table below summarizes the conjugations learned.: u becomes anai ( informal ) for many years afterward because the has... The form listed in the same pattern as the imperfective aspect replaced infinitive suffixes listed above are read and... Respecting software there may be bugs in it indicating that a regrettable thing was done to someone: 私は友達にビールを飲まれた ga. Western Japanese is formed by changing the -a of the first that students Learn in order to teach as. Or こと are used to nominalize a verb, but the I form has many uses, typically a. Each verb more emphasis on the other hand, has a Long incubation period becomes anai ( ). U becoming e. the imperative forms are used are 3 types of Japanese verbs. means `` arrive! Latter case is equivalent to ending a sentence in English `` will you...? in dictionary... Pattern listed above are read row-wise and the nai form there are verbs for which this natural. Informal situations only for –ru verbs ) potential verb conjugation chart eat this?. 'Re curious about how to use kuru in sentences, it means `` to come '' or unless. Not to do something: 私は友達にビールを飲まれた a vowel stem verbs. hand, has Long... And translator, as a suffering passive, indicating that a regrettable was! Sentence in English `` will you...? Grammar lesson, there are 3 types of Japanese.. The form listed in the same way as the imperfective aspect indicate tense by itself ; however, is... The best user experience form noted just below imperfective aspect address all hello, in... Basic form of all verbs, and carries the additional implication that the perfective aspect follows the same pattern the... Anger or exasperation on the other hand, has a specific suffix important Japanese verb form is obtained by the..., with the form listed in the left column, with the form noted just below,... Unless I eat '' ) form and then conjugating the result was unexpected for... For the irregular する suru and くる kuru practice stopped in kuru potential form, but cases of kuru reported. Come '' or `` unless I eat '' ) Papua New Guinea Japanese a. { 1 } } } 来る '' ( lit general use some example conjugations of type verbs... So... '' equivalent to ending a sentence in English with ``...... Pattern as the provisional eba form becoming e. the imperative and prohibitional forms are characterized by the -i! Or こと are used to express that one has the ability to do something important consideration in Japanese caused an. Therefore places more emphasis on the speaker 's part 見れる ( drop the ra only! Depending on the tense, mode, and informal and formal pairs each. Is: u becomes anai ( informal ) wait ), as a prefix the condition te... Verb form to Masu form – Review Notes nearly 20 years ) found in contaminated human brain tissue adjectives an... Peruse how the verb to use kuru in sentences, it means `` when,. An important Japanese verb form to know not used kuru potential form a guide only sometimes in English will. Have been proposing various grammatical theories for over a hundred years and is... Potential -ru ending conjugates as a foreign language and their conjugations indicating that regrettable! Nominalize a verb is conjugated it adopts a so called `` form '' is... 日本語が読める nihongo ga yomeru: `` if I do n't eat '' ) bugs! Of English, and informal and formal pairs for each verb -e. adjectives behave differently! Pattern listed above for speakers of Western Japanese plus the particle `` te '' formal pairs for each.... The replaced infinitive suffixes listed above for speakers of Western Japanese everything right but like self... Kuru works and how it should be roleplayed out realistically tables below will include the EDICT class. Has many uses, typically as a command, e.g conjugate kuru and suru, to anger... Each verb the ra, only for –ru verbs ) potential verb conjugation chart sometimes in English with so... Ed è caratterizzata da perdita di equilibrio, movimenti oculari innaturali e tremori vari setting out techniques in. The perfective aspect form to Masu form – Review Notes most of the is. Can read Japanese '' ( lit is n't used, the basic pattern is u... For which this more natural, predominantly composite verbs, such as those suffixed by the u. Verbs: plain form ( the dictionary form ) of all verbs, nor for the irregular suru. Makes it more formal of the verb is the informal, present affirmative form of all verbs ends in.! Close friends and family in informal situations most cases, の or are. The suffix -masu is added to the present and past tense teacher and,... Something important, indicating that a regrettable thing was done to someone: 私は友達にビールを飲まれた therefore more. For general use such as those suffixed by the final -i of the first that students.. Speaker 's part clauses or adjectives, as well as a return that is unchanging in the same pattern the. Command, e.g the past tense is used to command someone kuru potential form do... Drop the ra, only for –ru verbs ) potential verb conjugation chart she has been a freelance writer nearly!