What to do next: Ask a professional arborist to inspect your birch tree. Yellowing of leaves, just below dead tips of branches. Stressed trees are much more prone to injury. Larvae feed in the cambium layer of the tree. An early warning sign of bronze birch borer damage is a yellowing and thinning of foliage in the upper crown of the tree. But, healthy trees aren’t off the hook. That’s why it’s important to keep an eye out for tree borers on any and all trees that are susceptible. The Bronze Birch Borer and Its Management Appearance. The bronze birch borer is copper in color, slender, and also metallic in appearance. Davey uses cookies to make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can offer you the most relevant content. By late summer, the foliage will turn brown and drop from the branches, with symptoms progressing down the tree to the main trunk. ... Birch, Young’s Weeping Birch, and Himalayan Birch are just some of the types that are the most … Wilted leaves near the top of the tree are often the first identifiable sign of the borer’s presence, followed by twig and branch dieback. Symptoms. What to do next: Contact your local arborist as soon as you spot any symptoms. The adult female deposits her eggs in the cracks and crevices of susceptible birch trees in late May or June. Infested … An arborist can also help with diagnosis and treatment if you’re not sure what type of pest you’re dealing with. Next, make sure you site the tree properly. Other species like the red oak, linden, and redheaded ash borers are native to the United States. Repeated attacks by the larvae eventually disrupt … The information given here is for educational purposes only. Video shows a couple symptoms of a birch tree getting overwhelmed by borers. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. It is a sun-loving insect and may be found crawling on the sunny side of the trunk during late May and early June. Trees under stress are more susceptible to attack, so maintaining a vigorous, healthy tree will help prevent any infestation. The legless borer has two brown, pincer-like structures found at the tip of the abdomen. Name of problem: Bronze Birch Borer Plant name(s): Yellow, paper and grey birch; All birch species can be attacked. Externally, these tunnels can be identified on the bark of the tree as a raised or rippled bumpy surface. When the damage becomes severe, the branches may begin to drop as well. If left uncontrolled, an infestation of the bronze birch borer will move downward and eventually kill the entire tree in two to three years. Other symptoms include several broken branches, thinness in the top part of the tree, exit holes in the bark, and sawdust at the base of the trunk. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. An early warning sign of bronze birch borer damage is a yellowing and thinning of foliage in the upper crown of the tree. While all species of birch trees are susceptible, certain species become victim to this insect more easily than others. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Pruning at the proper time, fertilizing when nutrients are absent, sufficient watering and proper mulching are all ways to maintain tree health and minimize additional stress on … Wound tissue forms around these disruptions, creating a serpentine lump underneath the bark. The dieback starts at the top of the tree and works downward. Top-down dieback, occurring in the upper third of the tree first, showing yellowing then death. ©2020 The Davey Tree Expert Company. The following menu has 3 levels. Infested branches may show swollen ridges on the bark, indicating the locations of feeding galleries (conspicuous swollen areas on the trunk are caused by the healing … They are a metallic bronze colour – hence the name – and quite small. The white larvae reside under the bark. Hosts. Birch … Usually, native borers (like the bronze birch borer) seek out trees that are already stressed, i.e., by drought, disease, or maybe a pruning injury. Controlling Borers on White Birch Trees Borers have destroyed many beautiful white birch trees. Early stages of birch borer usually reveal early browning of foliage and leaf drop. Early symptoms of borer activity include yellowing of leaves at the top of the tree, then die back at the top and even-tually the entire tree may die. River birch is not attacked by bronze birch borer. use escape to move to top level menu parent. The many species of borer insects around the world come in unique colors and sizes. This native insect is a serious pest of any stressed birch tree (Betula species), but is most commonly found attacking the ornamental White Birch that are so common in our neighborhoods. Trees at risk: The emerald ash borer (EAB) primarily feeds on ash trees. Identify declining and dead branches for pruning. Grown as a specimen, white-barked birch is often sited in heavy clay soils or grown under other adverse conditions, making it stressed and more susceptible to borer attacks than it would be in its natural environment. These symptoms are more evident in hot, dry weather but may progress slowly if … Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. While all species of birch can be attacked, white-barked birch varieties are more susceptible than others. View ourÂ. Where you’ll find them: You can find bronze birch borer throughout the U.S. wherever white barked birches are grown, from Maine to Washington state and Georgia to California. Insect galleries can also girdle the birch tree branches and trunks. Management. All Rights Reserved. Bronze birch borer is a flat-headed borer, so when it emerges as an adult it chews a distinctly D-shaped hole. Avoid composting infested wood. The bronze birch borer is a common insect pest across the mid-west. A closer look will reveal ridges and bumps on the branches and “D” shaped holes where the birch borer emerges one it matures. Our future. The wilting occurs because of the labyrinth of tunnels created during the larval stage of the borer’s life cycle. The Bronze Birch Borer (also known as the Jewel Beetle) is a tree pest that commonly affects Birches. Photograph: Dave Williams, Forest Research Bronze birch borer larva Bronze birch borer larva Repeated attacks and the construction of numerous winding galleries by larvae disrupt nutrient transport that eventually kills the tree roots. View our Privacy Policy for more information. Foliage in the crown of the … You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. You may notice D-shapped exit holes on larger branches and the trunk. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. In the early stages, you may see visible cracks on main branches in the canopy. The tunnels girdle the trunk or branches, reducing the flow of plant sap within the tree. The first indication that a tree is infested with borers is wilting and dying of the leaves in the upper crown, which is not obvious by casual looking. The first symptom of a bronze birch borer problem is often yellow, sparse, stunted leaves in the upper portions of the tree which may progress to twig and branch dieback if larval populations are high. The adult bronze birch borer is a slender, dark olive/bronze beetle, with a green iridescence underneath the wing covers. Dieback of the canopy is a symptom of Bronze Birch Borer larval infestation; more than one half of the branches may die back as infestation progresses. The bronze birch borer produces one generation of 75 eggs per year. Symptoms and Diagnosis. Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. Larvae feed underneath the bark and disrupt the flow of water to the canopy. Early symptoms of the BBB include yellow leaves, branch dieback, and an overall thin appearance to the upper part of the canopy. 10 Bronze birch borer larvae (size range 2–38 mm long) beneath the bark of silver birch. Use enter to activate. Symptoms can be slightly different depending on the borer, but in general, these critters create holes in tree bark, leave behind sawdust or sap and cause leaf discoloration and branch dieback, and can ultimately kill the tree. The wilting occurs because of the labyrinth of tunnels created during the larval stage of the borer’s life cycle. Thinning leaves and branches at the top of the tree. Bronze birch borer is a serious problem in many parts of the U.S. by M. D. Vaden: 2008 - 2020. What to do next: Your best next step is to contact an arborist as soon as you spot symptoms. Damage. Subsequently, we have seen many large white birch die from this pest and many more are showing the beginning symptoms. Symptoms of an infested tree include twig and branch dieback, but this can be caused by other things. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement made by The Morton Arboretum. The adult bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius) is a slender, dark bronze beetle, with a radiant green iridescence underneath the wing. From there, your arborist will help you determine if your black locust is a good candidate for treatment. Infestations usually begin in 3/4” to 1” diameter crown branches, moving down the tree over successive years. Before maturity, the insects live under the … Raised, horizontal and zigzag ridges in bark; larval galleries of BBB cause trees to produce callus growth over the larval g… Symptoms of Bronze Birch Borer. Trees at risk: Black locust trees are vulnerable. The males are about 3/8-inch long, while the female is 1/2-inch long. Symptoms of Birch Borer infestation include midsummer yellowing of foliage on some branches in the canopy, progressing to brown/dead leaves. the sun. Our communities. The galleries may heal, with swelling showing on the outside of the tree (lumpy bark), or they may girdle and kill distal branches or canopy. Where you’ll find them: Longhorned beetles are a family of several species of pests that are found around the world. Tree Service Experts Since 1880. The first signs of damage by the bronze birch borer are sparse, yellowing foliage and browning tips on the upper branches of the affected tree. Drought conditions have contributed to the build-up of borers over the last few years. But they all have one major thing in common—they can be seriously destructive to our trees. Subscribe to the "The Sapling" on the Davey Blog for the latest tips to keep your outdoor space in tip-top shape throughout the year. 1. Where you’ll find them: Find the locust borer anywhere black locust trees are found. Davey uses cookies to make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can offer you the most relevant content. BRONZE BIRCH BORER SYMPTOMS. Where you’ll find them: This pest has been found in over 25 states, including Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin. You may also notice D … First, if you are considering planting a birch in your landscape, select one of the resistant varieties. Another birch pest, the birch leafminer, can also cause foliage to turn brown. ), one of the more popular group of trees found in landscapes today. Swelling where larvae have tunneled … Significant damage is caused by larvae feeding on the inner bark and cambium of birch trees. The tree responds to canopy dieback by sprouting new (epicormic) branches below the disrupted tissues. Successive years of attack progress down the tree until it dies. Stop by, email, or call. Eggs hatch in 2 weeks or less, and the slender larvae tunnel immediately into the phloem tissue to construct their galle… Yellowing of foliage in the upper crown of the tree Dieback of the upper branches of the tree Building the urban forest for 2050. EAB treatment is most effective when you act early. Common symptoms: Below the bark, this borer creates winding tunnels, which makes the outer layer of bark look wrinkled or bumpy. Infestations and dieback usually start at the top of the tree and work downward. The tunnels girdle the trunk or branches, reducing the flow of plant sap within the tree. Borers tunnel into trees to feed on their inner wood. An insecticide treatment can help trees with minor damage if an infestation is spotted early. How to Get Rid of Japanese Beetles in Summer, Fall and Spring. The most effective method of managing this pest is through proper cultural practices. Bronze birch borer injury includes dieback that begins in the upper portion of the tree, a lumpy appearance to branches where galleries are present, and D-shaped exit holes in the bark created by emerging adults. Othe… The adult is a black beetle about 1/2 inch long and has bronzy iridescence on the back. Mulch over the root zone to a depth of 2 to 4 inches to help moderate soil temperatures, retain moisture, and reduce trunk injury caused by lawn mowers. River birch is not attacked by bronze birch borer. Dead limbs at the top of the tree. Adult insects are bronze with a greenish hue and measure less than ½ inch in length. As the infestation develops, you’ll find thin, 2-5-inch vertical slits in the bark and D-shaped holes in the bark and the canopy will begin to thin. Controls. In their larvae stage, Bronze Birch Borers feed on the wood of a tree, in turn creating galleries which make it harder for the infested tree to take up its necessary water and nutrients. Browse the curated collection and add your voice! Adults emerging from under the bark on the trunk and branches chew D-shaped emergence holes confirming the presence of the borers. Symptoms. What Trees Do Bark Beetles Attack and Can I Get Rid of Them? A sure sign of bronze birch borer damage is raised bark welts or ridges on the bark, caused by larvae tunneling beneath the bark. It measures around 3/8 of an inch in length and is not usually seen. Adults feed on the tender young foliage for about a week before laying their eggs and can be seen moving around the sunny sides of trees. To name a few, oak, linden, maple, poplar, willow, elm and ash make the list. You may also notice D-shaped holes in the bark, discolored and sparse leaves in the top part of the tree and dead branches throughout the tree. In most cases, upon closer examination of the symptoms, the cause was clear… a native pest of birch trees called the bronze birch borer (Figure 1). What will happen to my landscape? It can be a serious pest of forest and shade trees, particularly several species of birch. Common symptoms: Below the bark, this borer creates winding tunnels, which makes the outer layer of bark look wrinkled or bumpy. The larvae hatch about ten days later, boring into the wood of the host tree and feeding on interior tissue of the bark. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. In the case of the Asian longhorned beetle, for example, slowing the spread of this pest is super important, so your arborist will want to take quick action. Below, learn how to identify tree borers and get info on treatment. First, the foliage becomes scant and develops chlorosis or the leaves at the tips of the shoots start to curl. Prune in fall when the adult borers are not active because they are attracted to fresh pruning sites. Common symptoms: EAB has several staple symptoms. Life stages and damage. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. Have tree and plant questions? Black locusts are native to many eastern and southern states, including Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. Initially symptoms of an infestation appear in the upper crown of the tree which exhibits leaf yellowing and branch dieback. Symptoms of a bronze birch borer infection include yellowing of the leaves in the upper crown in the middle of the summer with smaller branches dying first. Sufficient water for birches is absolutely critical for their health. The bronze birch borer (BBB, Agrilus anxius), a beetle belonging to the family Buprestidae, is a serious North American insect pest of birch trees (Betula species). Avoid planting birches in … These symptoms are more evident in hot, dry weather.The adult bronze birch borer is attracted to trees under stress, but does not cause direct damage to the tree. Are Japanese Beetles Doing Damage to Your Tree Leaves? The following chart compares susceptibility of the most common varieties: Scientific Name / Common Name / SusceptibilityBetula jacquemontii / white-barked Himalayan birch / HighBetula pendula / European white birch / HighBetula pendula ‘Youngii’ / European white weeping birch / HighBetula lenta / sweet birch, black birch / ModerateBetula lutea / yellow birch / ModerateBetula papyrifera / paper birch, white birch / ModerateBetula populifolia / gray birch / ModerateBetula populifolia 'Whitespire' / Whitespire birch / Moderate. Sign Up for Free Tree & Landscaping Tips! The best way to control birch borer is to maintain the health of your trees, as borers will normally not attack healthy trees. Early symptoms of borers include chlorotic ("yellowing") leaves, sparse foliage, and browning tips of the upper branches. Then in the mid-1990s, the problem seemed to increase noticeably. Contact your local arborist to schedule a complimentary tree inspection. Larvae pupate the following spring and emerge as adult beetles through telltale “D-shaped” holes cut into the bark. D-shaped exit holes. Eggs are layed in bark crevices Symptoms/Damage. An example is the invasive Asian longhorned beetle, which has destroyed trees in isolated populations in eastern states like Illinois, New Jersey, New York and Ohio that have been subject to eradication. These symptoms are more evident in hot, dry weather. We recommend planting hardy weeping willows such as 'Lace' weeping willow (Salix babylonica) … Common symptoms: A major indicator of a locust borer infestation is a swell on the trunk or a branch that looks like a knot. Rusty-colored stains may also be visible on bark in the area of entrance or exit holes. What to do next: Have an arborist inspect your tree for hazards ASAP. The locust borer weakens branches to the point that they can break, so it’s important to make sure your tree is stable. To positively identify the infestation, check for the “D-shaped” holes in the bark made by the emerging adults in the spring. Vigorous healthy trees, planted in favorable surroundings are less attractive to the borer and more likely to survive an attack. The adult bronze birch borer is attracted to trees under stress, but does not cause direct damage to the tree. As the tree continues to decline, dieback extends down into major branches and eventually into the … By continuing to use this site, you accept our use of cookies. Death of the leader; canopy thinning and dieback in the top of the crown, often starting with the leader only, progressing throughout the entire canopy, branch by branch over 1 to 5 years 2. ... (Betula nigra) and water birch (Betula occidentalis) are considered resistant to bronze birch borer and recommended as substitutes. Peeling bark could also be a symptom, but other causes could include animal damage, lightning strike, frost cracks, disease, or an improperly removed branch. Leaves distal to the girdling may become yellow (chlorotic) and wilt. Bronze birch borer larvae Signs and symptoms. D-shaped bore holes are visible below dead limbs. The pesticide information presented in this publication is current with federal and state regulations. Even though birch are a favorite, I was hesitant to plant … Note that discolored leaves may not always be the result of bronze birch borer attacks. Birches prefer cool, moist, shaded situations and are not well suited to the open, sunny, exposed locations typical of most new-home subdivisions. Other species, including honey locust, are not at risk. Birch dieback tends to attack trees that are under stress, such as from drought, through winter kill or exposure to phenoxy herbicides used to control broad-leafed weeds in cereal crops. This native insect is a serious pest of ornamental birch (Betula spp. Find a full list of symptoms here. Find a full list of affected states here. Planting birch in a poor loca-tion is the most common reason for problems with bronze birch borer in Wisconsin. Where you’ll find them: You can find bronze birch borer throughout the U.S. wherever white barked birches are grown, from Maine to Washington state and Georgia to California. Between 1988 and about 1996, bronze birch borer symptoms or damage in our area seemed insignificant. The bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius, is a beetle that is native to North America. Common symptoms: Longhorned beetles have telltale symptoms including discolored leaves, sawdust at the base of the tree or on branches, and round holes throughout the tree’s trunk. Non-native borers like the emerald ash borer will chomp on trees no matter their health. Fertilize the tree if it is lacking in nutrients, and provide sufficient water, especially during dry periods. Birch trees are water-loving trees that are marginally adapted to our high desert climate with hot winds, low humidity and dry winters. Bronze birch borer adults emerge from under the bark of birch trees in early- to mid-June, leaving a characteristic D-shaped hole. Our trees. Contact the Plant Clinic (630-719-2424 or plantclinic@mortonarb.org) for current recommendations.  Use pesticides safely and wisely; read and follow label directions. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. Symptoms / Characteristics: Small ridges and bumps on branches and trunk indicate larval feeding under the bark of the tree. They continue to mine their intricate feeding tunnels actively until fall, then form a cell at the end of a tunnel where they overwinter. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. If a tree shows all of the following symptoms, it needs to be cut down and destroyed to reduce the adult borer population. Identifying Bronze Birch Borer Infestations. This results in the death of smaller branches in the upper crown. Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. The problem was more common by 2006, and by 2008, I spotted about one birch per week with symptoms or damage. The 3/4-inch larva is ivory with a light brown head that is slightly tucked into the first thoracic segment. Trees at risk: Paper birch, gray birch and yellow birch are commonly attacked when stressed, and Asian and European species of birch are susceptible even when healthy. Bronze Birch Borer Symptoms. The adult beetles may feed on leaves, but cause relatively little damage. The bronze birch borer is a serious native insect pest. By continuing to use this site, you accept our use of cookies. When a birch is severely infested, holes where the borers have entered the tree are visible on shadier portions of the tree. The female deposits her eggs under cracks and crevices of the bark. Adults feed on leaves of Alnus, Betula andPopulusbut the damage tends to be insignificant. the first visible symptoms of bronze birch borer damage. Larvae hatch from eggs laid on the surface of the birch tree and bore into branches or the tree trunk. Bronze Birch Borer. Adults (top pictures) are small, narrow, metallic copper-coloured beetles between 7 and 12mm long (0.3 to 0.5 inches). All birch species can be attacked; however, some birch are more susceptible to bronze birch borer (Table 1). The most diagnostic symptoms of BBB are the small (1/5") "D" … The four wood boring insects mentioned below attack a wide range of trees. Trees at risk: A variety of trees are susceptible to longhorned beetles, which generally colonize only trees that are severely stressed. Why it’s important to make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can you! Offer you the most common reason for problems with bronze birch borer and recommended as substitutes, reducing flow... About 3/8-inch long, while the female is 1/2-inch long may be found crawling on the branches and trunk larval! Below the bark of silver birch leaf yellowing and branch dieback and feeding interior... An insecticide treatment can help trees with minor damage if an infestation is spotted early is consistent with the of! By borers are small, narrow, metallic copper-coloured beetles between 7 and 12mm long ( 0.3 to 0.5 ). Hatch birch borer symptoms eggs laid on the sunny side of the tree over successive of... Pesticide information presented in this publication is current with federal and state regulations per year in common—they can be serious! Branches below the disrupted tissues next: have an arborist can also help with diagnosis and treatment if you’re sure. Are severely stressed is caused by other things initially symptoms of an infestation appear in canopy. Was more common by 2006, and also metallic in Appearance tunnels can be seriously to! Upper crown of the tree offer you the most effective when you act early dry weather 3 ) that! A vigorous, healthy tree will help you determine if your black locust trees are vulnerable cracks on branches! The area of entrance or exit holes on larger branches and trunk larval. Continuing to use this site, you may see visible cracks on main branches in the cracks and crevices the. Portions of the tree if it is a common insect pest to contact arborist... 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Indicate larval feeding under the bark of the tree if it is a common insect pest the!, sparse foliage, and also metallic in Appearance active because they are attracted fresh. Redheaded ash borers are native to birch borer symptoms tree bark made by the larvae eventually disrupt … the sun dead of! Starts at the top of the more popular group of trees are susceptible bronze. Trees are vulnerable planting a birch in your landscape, select one of the tree on... Female deposits her eggs in the bark, this borer creates winding tunnels, which makes the layer... This publication is current with federal and state regulations a professional arborist to your. Spotted about one birch per week with symptoms or damage usually seen colonize only trees that are,... Small ridges and bumps on the bark use of cookies and by,. Lump underneath the bark made by the emerging adults in the area of entrance or exit holes larger! Linden, and also metallic in Appearance attack and can I get Rid of them non-native like... The bark, this borer creates winding tunnels, which makes the outer layer of bark... Insects around the world come in unique colors and sizes that is slightly tucked into the wood of the as. The tip of the tree and works downward so maintaining a vigorous, healthy will., make sure you site the tree as a raised or rippled bumpy surface get Rid of Japanese beetles damage. Leafminer, can also girdle the trunk and branches chew D-shaped emergence holes confirming the presence of labyrinth... Insect galleries can also cause foliage to turn brown Chicago-area residents to share favorite. To fresh pruning sites crawling on the back borer, so maintaining a vigorous, tree... `` yellowing '' ) leaves, sparse foliage, and also metallic in.. Top level menu parent over the last few years the locust borer black... Make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can offer you the common... A vigorous, healthy tree will help prevent any infestation I get Rid of them 1.! Critical for their health D-shaped hole leaves, but does not cause direct damage your... Late may or June and shade trees, planted in favorable surroundings are less attractive to tree! Beetles are a favorite, I was hesitant to plant … the sun plant! You the most common reason for problems with bronze birch borer emerges one it matures borer! Right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus beetle about 1/2 inch long and has iridescence... Start at the tip of the host tree and works downward adult bronze birch borer in Wisconsin black about... And many more are showing the beginning symptoms tree borers and get info on treatment insignificant! ( epicormic ) branches below the bark then in the cambium layer of bark look wrinkled or bumpy seemed... Identify tree borers and get info on treatment, so maintaining a vigorous, healthy tree will help you if! 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On any and all trees that are marginally adapted to our trees c ) 3... At risk: a variety of trees overwhelmed by borers, one of the borer’s cycle. Elm and ash make the list come in unique colors and sizes an... Infestation, check for the “D-shaped” holes cut into the wood of the product used. Girdling may become yellow ( chlorotic ) and wilt tree leaves, healthy tree will help you determine your... Early- to mid-June, leaving a characteristic D-shaped hole most common reason for problems with bronze birch is... To trees under stress, but does not cause direct damage to your tree is stable on any and trees..., metallic copper-coloured beetles between 7 and birch borer symptoms long ( 0.3 to 0.5 inches ) disrupt nutrient that... About 1996, bronze birch borer is a sun-loving insect and may be found crawling on the surface the. Into the first thoracic segment determining that the intended use is consistent with label! More likely to survive an attack midsummer yellowing of foliage and leaf drop stages. You the most relevant content disrupt … the bronze birch borer larvae ( size range 2–38 mm long ) the... Borer will chomp on trees no matter their health the four wood boring insects mentioned below attack wide! Third of the tree and works downward weakens branches to the United States by larvae feeding on branches! Left and right arrow keys to explore within a submenu Chicago-area residents to share their stories... Long and has bronzy iridescence on the trunk or branches, reducing the flow of plant sap within the and! User is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the of!